This work applies insights from the literature on social exclusion and terrorism to refugee studies, arguing that applying the social solidarity model provides new insights on excluded people that are otherwise overlooked. The paper extrapolates from seven tendencies Max Abrahms observes in terrorist organizations and applies them to excluded groups in general, and refugees in particular.
In monetary economics, models with multiple equilibria abound, especially in the case of models with overlapping generations such as the Cash-In-Advance model. Using inverse limits, [KS] establish a topological classification of the arising multiple equilibria and analyze the backward dynamics of the model. However, their work remains strictly theoretical and lacks any relevant examples supporting the theory. In this paper we corroborate the classification by presenting a family of examples that illustrate all possible cases from the classification.
This paper examines referee bias in the Major League Soccer (MLS), particularly looking at referees’ decisions regarding penalty kicks. After analyzing the 520 penalty kicks sanctioned since the inception of the MLS, this study ascertains that referees’ display a considerable bias
favoring the home team when awarding the initial penalty kick of a game. Additionally, this study demonstrates that in matches with more than one penalty kick, the penalties are disproportionately awarded to each team, suggesting that referees are compensating or atoning for their initial calls.