University of Richmond
This work was sponsored by the University of Richmond, School of Arts & Sciences, Department of English.
Firms pay workers using a variety of different pay structures. The structure that governs executive pay in many instances is a tournament pay structure. This paper examines the applicability of a tournament pay structure to lower wage workers by examining the effort and risk responses of players to tournament incentives and the role these responses play in determining the tournament’s outcome. Players from 19 different tournaments are observed on a hand by hand basis. It is found that players adjust effort and risk taking levels but only in response to certain incentives.
Recently, aid effectiveness has become a popular topic in the literature. Generally, it is measured by instrumental measures of well-being, specifically, GDP per capita. This paper uses a substantive approach, pioneered by Amartya Sen, to evaluate aid effectiveness. Substantive measures attempt to measure welfare directly. Specifically, I use infrastructure as measured by telephone lines per 100 people, life expectancy, economic diversification as measured by agriculture as a percentage of GDP, and education as measured by enrollment in primary school, as substantive measures of well-being.
attackers often obfuscate their code to avoid detection, which heightens the challenge and complexity of
automated defense systems. We present two analyses of malicious scripts and suggest how they could be
extended into intrusion detection systems. For our analyses we use a sample of deobfuscated malicious
and benign scripts collected from actual Web sites.
This paper looks at the acceptability of torture as a national security policy to combat terrorism. This paper finds that torture is an ineffective and unconstitutional practice. It also explains that torture infringes upon the most basic human rights as well as basic democratic rights. The legalization of torture for antiterrorism would lead to the expansion of torture in the future as society became more accepting of torture. The legalization of torture could increase the amount of torture that occurs across the globe because the United States often sets global precedents.
This thesis explores the multi-faceted and complex negotiations that took place
between Bulgaria and Europe’s major alliance systems at the start of World War I as both
groups attempted to convince Bulgaria to enter the conflict on their side.
In 1890, Germany and Great Britain concluded the Treaty of Helgoland-Zanzibar,
which settled many of their numerous and complex colonial issues in Africa. The
territorial exchange of British-held Helgoland and German-held Zanzibar, which was part
of this agreement, had a major impact in its finalization. Indeed, without the Helgoland-
Zanzibar swap, such a treaty most likely would never have occurred. Many hoped that
the Helgoland-Zanzibar agreement would usher in a new era in Anglo-German friendship
and, perhaps, lead to a formal alliance.
In response to tough economic times and difficulty meeting the need of homeless populations, many charities could use an improved understanding of what predicts and contributes to charitable intentions. The current studies sought to empirically address this issue. Study 1 results revealed that positive attitudes toward the homeless and charitable intentions predicted actual donation behavior. Study 2 results suggested that morality dimensions focused
on fairness and harm predicted positive attitudes and charitable intentions.
The ORE is phenomenon whereby recognition for own race faces is better than
recognition of other race faces. This study examines how non-perceptual factors—social
context, attitudes, and experience—impact the ORE. Participants from three different
racial groups (Caucasian, Black, Asian) completed a face recognition task screening faces
for status-specific targets (baseline, perpetrator, victim), self-report measures of explicit
bias and experience with members from other races and a measure of implicit bias.
Results indicated that non-perceptual factors impact the ORE.
Patients with category-specific visual agnosia (CSVA) often exhibit a disproportionate
difficulty recognizing objects from biological categories due (in part) to the fact that
exemplars from biological categories tend to be visually and conceptually more similar.
Similarity is often conceived of as a pairwise property (i.e., in terms of distance in a
psychological space matrix), but may be more accurately conceived of as a setwise
property (i.e., in terms of shared features).