University of Richmond

Selection of risk and effort levels among low-stakes players : a case study in online poker

Firms pay workers using a variety of different pay structures. The structure that governs executive pay in many instances is a tournament pay structure. This paper examines the applicability of a tournament pay structure to lower wage workers by examining the effort and risk responses of players to tournament incentives and the role these responses play in determining the tournament’s outcome. Players from 19 different tournaments are observed on a hand by hand basis. It is found that players adjust effort and risk taking levels but only in response to certain incentives.

Aid effectiveness in sub-saharan Africa and south and southeast Asia : an analysis of substantive measures of development

Recently, aid effectiveness has become a popular topic in the literature. Generally, it is measured by instrumental measures of well-being, specifically, GDP per capita. This paper uses a substantive approach, pioneered by Amartya Sen, to evaluate aid effectiveness. Substantive measures attempt to measure welfare directly. Specifically, I use infrastructure as measured by telephone lines per 100 people, life expectancy, economic diversification as measured by agriculture as a percentage of GDP, and education as measured by enrollment in primary school, as substantive measures of well-being.

Detecting malicious JavaScript

The increased use of the World Wide Web and JavaScript as a scripting language for Web pages have made JavaScript a popular attack vector for infecting users' machines with malware. Additionally, attackers often obfuscate their code to avoid detection, which heightens the challenge and complexity of automated defense systems. We present two analyses of malicious scripts and suggest how they could be extended into intrusion detection systems. For our analyses we use a sample of deobfuscated malicious and benign scripts collected from actual Web sites.

Torture cannot be used as a national security policy

This paper looks at the acceptability of torture as a national security policy to combat terrorism. This paper finds that torture is an ineffective and unconstitutional practice. It also explains that torture infringes upon the most basic human rights as well as basic democratic rights. The legalization of torture for antiterrorism would lead to the expansion of torture in the future as society became more accepting of torture. The legalization of torture could increase the amount of torture that occurs across the globe because the United States often sets global precedents.

Sold to the highest bidder? : An investigation of the diplomacy regarding Bulgaria's entry into World War I

This thesis explores the multi-faceted and complex negotiations that took place between Bulgaria and Europe’s major alliance systems at the start of World War I as both groups attempted to convince Bulgaria to enter the conflict on their side.

The treaty of Helgoland-Zanzibar : the beginning of the end for the Anglo-German friendship?

In 1890, Germany and Great Britain concluded the Treaty of Helgoland-Zanzibar, which settled many of their numerous and complex colonial issues in Africa. The territorial exchange of British-held Helgoland and German-held Zanzibar, which was part of this agreement, had a major impact in its finalization. Indeed, without the Helgoland- Zanzibar swap, such a treaty most likely would never have occurred. Many hoped that the Helgoland-Zanzibar agreement would usher in a new era in Anglo-German friendship and, perhaps, lead to a formal alliance.

Especially in this economy : the effect of personal and situational factors on charitable intentions and attitudes toward the homeless

In response to tough economic times and difficulty meeting the need of homeless populations, many charities could use an improved understanding of what predicts and contributes to charitable intentions. The current studies sought to empirically address this issue. Study 1 results revealed that positive attitudes toward the homeless and charitable intentions predicted actual donation behavior. Study 2 results suggested that morality dimensions focused on fairness and harm predicted positive attitudes and charitable intentions.

The other race effect : the role of experience and social attiudes on face recognition

The ORE is phenomenon whereby recognition for own race faces is better than recognition of other race faces. This study examines how non-perceptual factors—social context, attitudes, and experience—impact the ORE. Participants from three different racial groups (Caucasian, Black, Asian) completed a face recognition task screening faces for status-specific targets (baseline, perpetrator, victim), self-report measures of explicit bias and experience with members from other races and a measure of implicit bias. Results indicated that non-perceptual factors impact the ORE.