University of Richmond
Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH) is a homodimeric oxidoreductase that
catalyzes the NAD+/NADH‐dependent reversible oxidation of L‐malate into
oxaloacetate.1 The enzyme is involved in the Kreb’s and glyoxylate cycles, as well as
the malate‐aspartate shuttle.2 Different isoforms of MDH have been identified
including cytosolic, mitochondrial, glyoxysomal, chloroplast, and bacterial, and
these isoforms are located in various subcellular areas with specificity for NAD+ or
NADP+.3 Each subunit of MDH has two structurally and functionally diverse
domains: an NAD+‐binding domain in the amino‐terminal domain
This work was sponsored by the University of Richmond, School of Arts & Sciences, Department of Biology.
This work was sponsored by the University of Richmond, School of Arts & Sciences, Department of History.
President Obama has proposed that the United States increase the number of college graduates
by 8 million by 2020 in order to raise national educational standards and to engage in global
competition. Obama’s policies and rhetoric frequently describe “education as a pathway to
success” and “education as a pathway to jobs,” but fail to emphasize its comprehensive, intrinsic
values. America’s national discussion on education needs to shift away from framing higher
education merely as pathway to the workforce, and should focus instead on education as a vital
part of a well-lived life.
The effect of exposure to female role models with gender specific attributes was
examined in two studies. In Study 1 both women and men were presented with one of eight
stimuli (role model gender: male or female; role model legitimacy attributes:
organizational high, organizational low, social high, or social low). Results demonstrated
women’s higher preference for female role models and vis‐à‐vis. Regression analyses
demonstrated women’s preference for role models in general while men only preferred
socially legitimate role models.
Co-rumination is the act of negatively discussing problems with another person. The focus of corumination
is generally on the negative aspects, or things that cannot be changed as opposed to
active problem solving. Co-rumination is positively associated with positive friendship quality as
well as internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression. Co-rumination is most
commonly studied in children and adolescents, but the present study extends this research by
looking at the undergraduate population.
Marine life is the basis for most industries in the Turks and Caicos Islands, located on the
outskirts of the Caribbean Sea. Few studies have been carried out to assess the current status of
reefs in this region, especially those off the shore of South Caicos Island. The AGRRA v.4.0
methodologies were employed create baseline assessments of stony corals, macroalgae and
associated fishes and to explore the relationships between these key reef organisms.
Implicit in cellular mechanisms essential for learning and memory, NMDA receptors
are heterotetrameric members of the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Activation of
the glutamate-specific receptor subunits results in the opening of ion channels, triggering an
excitatory pathway, which can be moderated by certain endogenous and exogenous
The current study examined whether the presentation of gender-affirming literature, in the form of information about the University of Richmond‟s Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies (WGSS) program, mitigated female stereotype threat in the domain of mathematics. A pilot study tested 10 male and 10 female college-aged participants to determine whether a derogatory beer commercial produced the threat effect in women; results were inconclusive.
Revenge is the natural human response to interpersonal transgressions. However, given the benefits of forgiveness, it is important to consider how forgiveness can be facilitated. Many factors have been shown to be associated with forgiveness, ranging from situational factors (e.g., perception of the transgression) to dispositional factors (e.g., personality traits). This study aims to extend research on the factors that are associated with forgiveness, and determine the processes on which forgiveness relies.