Torture cannot be used as a national security policy

´╗┐This paper looks at the acceptability of torture as a national security policy to combat terrorism. This paper finds that torture is an ineffective and unconstitutional practice. It also explains that torture infringes upon the most basic human rights as well as basic democratic rights. The legalization of torture for antiterrorism would lead to the expansion of torture in the future as society became more accepting of torture. The legalization of torture could increase the amount of torture that occurs across the globe because the United States often sets global precedents.

Refugee ex-factor: a framework toward the understanding of excluded people

This work applies insights from the literature on social exclusion and terrorism to refugee studies, arguing that applying the social solidarity model provides new insights on excluded people that are otherwise overlooked. The paper extrapolates from seven tendencies Max Abrahms observes in terrorist organizations and applies them to excluded groups in general, and refugees in particular.